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  • Figuring it out: exploring metrics in Global Health

    As I embark upon a large qualitative research project, I've been thinking a lot about metrics. I've been thinking about what we measure (and how sometimes reality differs from intention!), about how we measure it, about the value that this imparts onto it and about what it means to be a qualitative researcher in a quantitative world. In this post, I wanted to share some of my initial thoughts about the pros and cons of metrics in global health. There's a short bibliography at the end, but I'd really appreciate your recommendations for further reading on the subject. I'd also love to hear your thoughts and feedback on my summary so far. What do we mean by metrics? Global Health metrics seek to translate the status (and trends) of complex, shifting and multi-faceted ethnographic circumstances into a manageable, malleable and memorable quantitative format through the use of indicators. It occurs to me that the process of reducing rich and nuanced occurrences into a handful of digits is akin to a siren-like beauty: the idea is beguiling but can be treacherous if trusted without question. Keeping Count The discipline of global health has evolved in conjunction with the rise of quantitative data (i.e. inventories, statistics, metrics, indicators and numerical goal-setting). Before dissecting the relative merits and problems with this, I think it's useful to reflect upon the sheer extent to which metrics are woven into the fabric of our world’s health systems, as one can become blind to normative practices when they are familiar. So let's have a quick think about some of the myriad ways in which we use (and are used by?) numbers: Indicators and metrics guide governments in both determining and communicating priorities and resource allocation to national health providers. In a global setting, metrics are used for measuring the baseline of, and progress beyond, key health issues (and a plethora of non-health related issues such as poverty or corruption, for example). This information not only directs the policy and priority of global health organisations, it influences investments, trading, and the global economic market as a whole. Metrics are utilised by donors (institutional and philanthropic alike) to hold recipient organisations to account, frequently in combination with hefty incentives and reprisals. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation are a high-profile example of this: a powerful donor with a zealot-like belief that quantitative data and financial incentives are key to solving global health challenges. Metrics are a powerful tool of advocacy groups, think-tanks and researchers for influencing change. Consider the Access to Medicines Index, which has impressively shifted the behaviour of pharmaceutical behemoths in a short span, through the use of indicators, analysis, public reporting and thereby the generation of competition. Metrics are used heavily in research and academia where there is sometimes a propensity for quantitative studies to be considered more serious and scientific than qualitative ones. This is reflected in journals like the Lancet, for example: a highly-respected and widely-read journal, which is a strong proponent of metrics. Pervasive, to say the least. With this in mind then, let us explore the positive and detrimental impact of metrics. Photo by Stephen Dawson on Unsplash The benefits of Global Health metrics As pithily stated by Shiffman and Shawar, “the inherent allure of metrics [is] their ease of use and their alleged capacity to render legible complex worlds” (1). The value of this is undeniable (by all but the most ardent critics) because it enables information to be utilised and applied in a manner that is not feasible (or at least practical) with qualitative data. Through the generation of a number, our “complex world” is reified into a single reference that can be manipulated through calculation and communicated with ease. Based on my experiences, and through my initial readings, I think the benefits of metrics could be summarised and grouped as follows. So, what's all the fuss about numbers? Calculation. Firstly, they allow us to conduct processes (e.g. budgeting, or risk management) that would otherwise be less effective, or even unworkable, without numbers. Such fundamental activities are core to “business as usual” for most health organisations. Moreover, certain disciplines are entirely dependent on, or characterised by, their use of statistical analysis (epidemiology, or quantitative research, for example). Motivation. Secondly, information becomes compelling. Numbers are simple, memorable, and easy to communicate (relative to other forms of data). There is also evidence to indicate that individuals tend to be more willing to trust quantitative data, as it is more likely to be viewed as scientific (1). As a result, information shared in this manner tends to resonate with the audience and thus it is a powerful tool for those wishing to gain attention or exert change. Competition. Thirdly, it facilitates comparison. Distillation of an issue into a single, solid figure, removes extraneous factors, bypasses ambiguity, and creates a tangible and actionable output. An obvious application of this is to track the progress of an issue over time. Another benefit is that it creates scope for rankings and competition. This benefit is readily used by employers, campaigners, regulators and numerous global actors to, often publicly, urge change or alignment with a cause. Liberation. Fourthly, it is emancipatory. Impartial measurement can map issues and shine a light on problems that may otherwise be marginalised, in a manner that may be challenging to deny (1). Communication. Fifthly, it enables engagement with a non-technical audience. While an individual may lack the competence or time to engage with a subject, complex ideas, issues and circumstances can be rapidly communicated and discussed. In my experience, this is often of particular value when dealing with the public or when liaising with senior management. Obligation. Finally, it creates accountability. Numbers allow a systematic and objective consideration of an activity or outcome that provides a dispassionate and apparently unbiased picture of performance. "When counting, try not to mix chickens with blessings." Leonardo da Vinci The problem with Global Health metrics However, and rather obviously, there are drawbacks to metrics that not only undermine all of these benefits, but also that may have an actively detrimental impact on global health. These could be described as follows: Abstraction. Similarly to Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, metrics are a shadow of reality, dancing on the cave wall of our understanding. The methods of data collection, and of imputation, are often opaque. In addition, as discussed, the numbers (and indicators) themselves are “products of social processes heavily reliant on interpretation” (1). However, through ignorance or inability, there is a risk that these abstracted figures are confidently used and applied as if they are complete and specific. Over-Simplification. Metrics are reductive by intention. However, it strikes me that quantifying human experience – particularly human suffering – is a somewhat grotesque and heartless activity. It, according to Fukuda-Parr, “redefines [the concept] to a utilitarian perspective” (2) and in so doing, it undermines an individual’s lived experience. She exemplifies this statement by considering poverty: metrics may describe it in terms of income, but this is wholly unsuited to conveying the dehumanisation experienced by begging or prostitution (2). Generalisation. Metrics involves gathering data from an array of cases and analysing them as a cohort. The results are used to make generalised observations, declarations and decisions and, in so doing, ignore nuance, quirks and specificities. Tichenor and Sridhar question “the larger ramifications of practices of standardization, data correction, and imputation… particularly with the goal of making local contexts readable from a satellite’s view of the world” (3). They point to the problem of universalising experience and applying the results to national or district health services without local adaptation. This issue is particularly problematic for the Global South and may result in the presumptive implementation of inappropriate interventions (3). Individualisation. Counterintuitively, metrics can both be generalised and individualised. Since the 1960s there has, broadly, been a reframing of metrics and global goals into person-centred measurements and targets. Although this humanisation of data is not entirely regrettable, some birds-eye analysis of (and interest in) global issues has been lost (2). For example, moving the narrative from economic development to an impact on livelihoods can mean that a macroeconomic understanding of the issue is neglected. Information. Global data sets have the potential to subvert the establishment of national information systems (1). Over the last three decades, as globilisation, humanitarianism and economic development have matured, metrics have shifted from an organisational tool to a world-wide industry. Massive data sets are gathered, analysed and communicated on a global stage and, whilst this data may not be intended for national decision-making, it is predictable that it has disincentivised the creation of individual governmental health information systems in some lower income countries (1). As a result, effected countries may lack the national or local knowledge required to make suitably adapted decisions (regarding intervention, priority, or resource allocation, for example) (1). In addition, this contributes to a lack of local data analysis skills, due to a lack of opportunity and investment to build this capacity (3). Finally, it also means that the open-source data sets used by a country are not actually owned by it, which can have implications for the interpretation and analysis of it (as full knowledge of collection, imputation and calculation methods are unlikely to be available). Domination. Whilst considering large data sets (used to measure and track global burden of disease, international development goals, or country comparators, for example) we should question who determines the indicators that are used. These are, inevitably, large organisations (such as a UN agency or the World Bank), wealthy organisations (such as donors or private firms), or High-Income Countries situated in the Northern hemisphere. Even if we assume that indicators are selected by these parties for purely altruistic purposes, the outcome is a shift of power: from designated to designator, from low-income to high-income entity. This results in global attention being focussed on those conditions and causes that the privileged consider to be worthy – and, similarly, to be measured by indicators that they believe to be representative. This paternalistic exclusion of relevant actors creates, according to Shiffman and Shawar, an “uneven playing field” (1). It is this same “uneven playing field” that prevents these metrics being corrected and optimised through scrutiny and iteration. Not only will differing perspectives have a smaller platform and be less likely to be heard, but alignment around them is driven via financial incentives or social pressure. Public ratings and comparisons create the potential for reputational damage, which in turn coerces a State or organisation to align with these designated priorities. Trust. According to Shiffman and Shawar, critics of metrics feel that they “present a scientific veneer to a contingent undertaking, and thus acquire an authoritativeness [that] they do not deserve” (1). While their compelling and motivating nature is acknowledged as a benefit in this paper, the flip side is a skewing effect that it holds on the sector (as is manifest in several of the points already mentioned). While anyone can digest metrics and graphs at face value, the critical thinking and interrogative scepticism needed to interpret and act upon them are learned skills. This, inevitably, leads to the politicisation of metrics. Numbers can be presented and manipulated to great effect to mobilise support and resources for a campaign, to undermine a competitor’s reputation, or to disingenuously present results, for example. The scale of this unearned legitimacy is perhaps most simply summarised by the adage: “Lies, damn lies, and statistics”. Force. Finally, and as is evident across all of these points, metrics possess a force (for influence seems too weak a term). The aforementioned negative aspects result in a host of negative consequences and – as forceful as they are – not only measure global health, but shape it in their own right. First, as stated, metrics can create alignment around, and have a substantial influence on, strategy, prioritisation and the allocation of resource. This has the effect of supplanting national/organisational strategic processes of prioritisation and therefore interfering with internal structures, mechanisms, and outputs. Secondly, and equally significantly, metrics impact things that are not measured. As only a limited number of indicators can be tracked, this effectively both narrows and silos global focus (thereby further influencing the global agenda). Furthermore, regarding what is not measured, it sends a tacit message in respect of its worth(lessness) – and therefore of the issues and experiences that it seeks to represent. For example, when the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) chose not to include access to reproductive health as a measure (believing that that this was sufficiently covered by poverty reduction and maternal mortality) they failed to recognise the struggle and significance that this has on the rights and capabilities of women (2). Given the influence of global targets in setting national agendas, it is easy to see how such an omission can (negatively) impact initiatives and subsequently alter their course. Thirdly, the existence of data (or the potential for it) is influential. Where it exists, it begs to be researched. This has an impact on the popularity of quantifiable issues, which in all likelihood leads to their increased discussion, readership and scientific progress. Furthermore, where an intervention can be measured, it may be preferentially implemented. For example, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is a cornerstone of NHS mental health intervention. Its measurability has undoubtedly contributed to this status – a trait that more traditional (yet potentially more effective) forms of talking therapy do not share. This creates a “technocratic agenda” and can medicalise issues that should instead be progressed via social, educational or alternative interventions (1). Fourthly, there is a general human (and organisational) preference for metrics over other forms of data. This privileges that “form of knowledge…[over] those that cannot be quantified” (1). This has a directing effect on interventions, research, publications and public support. Fifthly, finally, and most profoundly, metrics have the potential to shape our perspective on reality. They categorise the world and in doing so they define and shape it, by delineating how it should be categorised, considered and valued. Final thought Given the pervasiveness of metrics in Global Health, it is not a stretch to assert that they (and the indicators from which they are derived) have the potential to shape every facet of healthcare, in every corner of the world. However, how this potential is realised is, of course, dependent upon how the numbers are interpreted and applied. References & Bibliography (1) Shiffman J, Shawar YR. Strengthening accountability of the global health metrics enterprise. The Lancet (British edition) 2020;395(10234):1452-56. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30416-5 (2) Fukuda-Parr S. Global Goals as a Policy Tool: Intended and Unintended Consequences. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 2014;15(2-3):118-31. doi: 10.1080/19452829.2014.910180 (3) Tichenor M, Sridhar D. Metric partnerships: global burden of disease estimates within the World Bank, the World Health Organisation and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Wellcome Open Research 2020;4(35) doi: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15011.2 Adams V. Metrics : what counts in global health. Durham, [North Carolina] ; London, [England]: Duke University Press 2016. Whittemore R, Chase SK, Mandle CL. Validity in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Health Research 2001;11(4):522-37. doi: 10.1177/104973201129119299 Thanks for reading and visiting GPX! Please feel free to share your thoughts and comments about the article below. Also, if you'd like to stay in the loop, please join GPX's (new!) Facebook page and our community of practice on this site. Cover photo by Jon Tyson on Unsplash - with thanks.

  • Exploring the Genuine Fake

    Imagine that, as you're reading this, you're doing so from a low income country. (Indeed, perhaps you are!) Now imagine that we are joined by a family with a very young daughter, who has been diagnosed with pneumonia. The situation is grave and the family are concerned because the last two courses of antibiotics have failed to work. The doctors are unable to explain why, as the medicines have been Quality Assured by the government. Perhaps it's antimicrobial resistance? Perhaps the medicines have been stored incorrectly and have degraded? Perhaps they've expired and the vendor altered the label? Perhaps they're fake? Perhaps... well there are a host of possible reasons. For now let's focus on the real problem: a dying child, without access to basic, effective treatments, because of where she lives. It is estimated that 10.5% of medicines in low- and middle- income countries are fake or substandard (1). This is unsurprising, and possibly an underestimate, given that nearly 75% of governments are not considered to have a “stable, well-functioning and integrated regulatory system” (2). Let's return to our story. There's hope: the family are informed of a nearby clinic that can provide treatment. However, the clinic operates outside of the State-sponsored health system and, it is whispered, smuggles in its medicines from a neighbouring country. These medicines are real yet illegitimate: Quality Assured by one country, but not approved by this one. Who is right? What should the family do...? This scenario highlights how concepts like "quality" can be subjective and how authenticity is not necessarily binary. It also provides a small snapshot into the kind of dilemmas that uncertainty can cause in global health - for patients, doctors and regulators alike. I explore these ideas, and the notion of the "Genuine Fake", in this podcast with Assoc Prof Patricia Kingori - please have a listen (it's about 15 mins long) and leave a comment below or on GPX's new Facebook page. I'd love to hear your thoughts and your own stories. References 1. A Study on the Public Health and Socioeconomic Impact of Substandard and Falsified Medical Products. Geneva: World Health Organization (2017). {Available at: https://www.who.int/medicines/regulation/ssffc/publications/se-study-sf/en/ } 2. Khadem Broojerdi A, Baran Sillo H, Ostad Ali Dehaghi R, et al. The World Health Organization Global Benchmarking Tool an Instrument to Strengthen Medical Products Regulation and Promote Universal Health Coverage. Frontiers in Medicine 2020;7(457) doi: 10.3389/fmed.2020.00457 {Available at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2020.00457/full } {For information about the WHO's Global Benchmarking Assessment Tool, head to: https://www.who.int/medicines/regulation/benchmarking_tool/en/ } Thanks for reading and visiting GPX! I'm currently researching these issues at the University of Oxford, with the kind support of the Wellcome Trust. If you'd like to stay in the loop, please join GPX's (new!) Facebook page and the community on this site.

  • Introducing... Morphine Sulphate - it's dreamy!

    Happy Friday, All. This month I have the pleasure of introducing you to morphine sulphate: it's dreamy! Class Morphine sulphate belongs to the class of drugs known as opioids. Mechanism of Action As far as we are aware, there are three different opioid receptors in the body: mu (µ), delta (δ) and kappa (κ). This is interesting for a couple of reasons. Firstly it indicates the presence of endogenous opioid-like chemicals (i.e. they occur naturally, within our bodies). And secondly, it suggests that these opioid-like chemicals can produce a broad range of effects. Wow! So I can create morphine? No... not quite. The three naturally-occurring opioid-like peptides are: endorphins (this word is a portmanteau of “endogenous morphine”), enkephalins and dynorphins. You’ve probably heard of endorphins – they're the “feel good” hormones that have a high affinity for the µ receptors. That means that although they’ll bind with the other receptors, they’d prefer to hang out with µ. Don’t feel too sorry for the other guys though – enkephalins usually buddy up with δ and the dynorphins are fond of keeping the κ receptors happy. So what happens when one of these "naturally-occurring opioids" latches onto a receptor? Well, the receptors are situated on neurones (nerve cells responsible for transmitting messages around the body) and when one of the "naturally-occurring" opioids binds to it the action potential of the cell is changed. What on earth is an “action potential”?! I’m glad you asked. Think of it like the amount of force required to tip over a glass of water. If the force applied to the glass is too weak, we don't reach the crucial tipping-point and nothing happens. However, if sufficient force is applied, then the glass will tip over and the water will spill out. In relation to our neurone, once the action potential ("tipping point") has been reached, then neurotransmitters are released, and a message is transmitted. The action potential (i.e. the level of force needed to cause an effect) can be altered. To return to our analogy, we can make it easier or harder to tip the glass of water over e.g by changing the slope of the table or by putting a weight into the glass. This is where the opioid receptors on the neurone (and peptides that bind to them) come into play. Some chemicals will reduce the action potential - this makes it easier for an electrical stimulus reach the action potential and cause the release of neurotransmitters. Opioids increase the action potential - this makes it less likely for an action potential to be reached, and therefore for the neurone to release its neurotransmitters messengers. OK - so if I have lots of naturally-occurring opioids in my system, my neurones will fire less frequently. What does that really mean? How does it affect me? The impact of a naturally-occurring opioid joining forces with one of the opioid receptors will depend –broadly – on two key factors: Where it’s located. Unsurprisingly, the ones in your brain will have a different effect to the ones in your intestines! Which neurotransmitter "messengers" are released. There are lots. Once these guys are let loose, they also encourage or inhibit other proteins, which can encourage or inhibit yet more proteins... You get the point. It can get complicated! OK - so I get the impression that a really wide range of things can happen depending on which peptides and receptors are involved, and where they are located... but could you give me any examples? Sure. Let's run through the predominant locations and “responsibilities” of the µ, δ and κ receptors and talk about what happens when morphine is one the scene. µ receptors (these are the ones that are usually modulated by endorphins). In the brain, these are found in greatest number in the periaquaductal gray region, which is responsible for modulating our perception of pain. By interacting with the µ receptor, morphine interrupts this “pain message” to produce an analgesic (painkilling) effect. They are also found in the nucleus acumbens in the brain, a region that is responsible for our sensation of pleasure. The feeling of pleasure is associated with reward-seeking behaviour, which can manifest itself as euphoria and addiction – both of which are well-recognised effects of opioids. We also find this receptor in the intestinal tract, where activation reduces the motility of the gut. This is what is responsible for a troubling side-effect of morphine, particularly for those who take opioids long-term: constipation. As an aside, I find it a bit disappointing that the same receptor is responsible for all of these effects. Wouldn't it be great if we could achieve pain-relief without constipation and the problem of addiction? Unfortunately, the representation of µ receptors in these two areas suggests that all of these effects are inextricably linked. δ receptors (these are the ones that are often modulated by enkephalins). By breeding mice that don’t exhibit these receptors, scientists have found that the δ receptor is associated with our management of stress. We think that this is probably because it results in the release of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and serotonin. At this receptor, enkephalin (and morphine) will cause a reduction in both anxiety and depression. κ receptors (these ones are usually modulated by dynorphins). These receptors are also expressed in the periaquaductal gray (the pain centre), as well as in pain neurones distributed in the spinal cord and around the body. They don't quite behave as you might expect, because although some of these sites will produce analgesia... others will increase an individual’s sensitivity to pain. We think that they may be associated with complex issues like neuropathic pain. In addition the κ receptor is located in the hypothalamus – this region of the brain controls a whole host of activities including stress, attachment behaviour and appetite. Don't forget that opioids will make release of neurotransmitters less likely. So, morphine acting on this receptor will cause dysphoric adverse effects like depression, dissociation, delirium, hallucinations and hunger. Indication Morphine sulphate is used in the treatment of severe pain. Random Fact Morphine can be naturally derived from the poppy (Papaver somniferens) and is named after Morpheus, the Greek god of sleep. Thanks for reading. Have a marvellous weekend, wherever you are!

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  • Global Pharmacy Exchange / Community of Practice

    Global Pharmacy Community Search Global Pharmacy Community Start a conversation, share an idea, ask for support, tell us about your role... get involved in your community! Peer Support Cafe Connect with other Global Pharm-ers: seek advice, support and answers to life's great mysteries... Views Posts 1 Follow Jobs & Events Opportunities for those in (or interested in) Humanitarian Pharmacy and Global Health. Views Posts 21 Follow Emergency Medical Teams Community of Practice dedicated to those working or interested in the WHO Emergency Medical Team project. Views Posts 1 Follow New Posts Kate Enright Feb 16, 2018 Job - IRC - New York (USA) Discussion Amazing job opportunity heading up Pharmacy services of IRC! https://rescue.csod.com/ats/careersite/jobdetails.aspx?site=1&c=rescue&id=1129 0 comments 0 0 Kate Enright Jan 18, 2018 Job - Chemonics - Nigeria Discussion Interesting role for an experienced humanitarian pharmacy professional who enjoys a broader operational role and a good challenge! https://reliefweb.int/job/2420784/country-director#field-how-to-apply Feel free to get in touch for support. 0 comments 0 0 Kate Enright Jan 17, 2018 Job - MSF - Somalia Discussion Great opportunity with a fantastic organisation, for an individual with a couple of years' humanitarian pharmacy experience. Role overview: Defining, coordinating and monitoring all pharmacy related activities in the project area including management of staff, according to MSF protocols, standards and procedures and the mission’s pharmacist and Medical Coordinator’s guidelines, in order to ensure the proper management and supply of drugs and medical devices. More info here: https://reliefweb.int/job/2413269/international-staff-project-pharmacy-manager-msf-mission-somalia 0 comments 0 0

  • Resources | gpexchange

    Files + File Name Last Updated Views Favorites Contributors FAQ 1 item Sep 7, 2020 0 0 Kate Enright Welcome to File Share.pdf File 4.32 MB Sep 7, 2020 0 0 Kate Enright

  • Global Pharmacy Exchange / Connect...Collaborate...Create Change...

    Log In Global Pharmacy Exchange Connect. Collaborate. Create Change. Hello, Pharmacy Friends! At GPX, we believe that a more , more connected informed and more pharmacy workforce will transform empowered ​ #AccesstoMedicines The Problem We all have a right to health, and yet ​ nearly 2 billion people have no access to basic medicines. It is impossible to have humanity and not be outraged by this. The Problem About 2 BILLION people have no access to basic medicines Ref Ten Years in Public Health 2007 - 2017 (WHO) What can you do? On your own? Not much, probably. ​ But together? Well... we could be unstoppable. ​ ​ ________________________ ​ "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed it's the only thing that ever has." Margaret Mead ________________________ ​ ​ ​ The bad news is that there is no one, single solution. ​ The good news is that small, everyday actions - your actions - can make a difference. ​ Change doesn't just require... Spectacular Global Campaigns Celebrity Support Grand Initiatives Ground-Breaking Research Immense Funds ... Change requires you. Global Pharmacy Exchange At GPX, we believe in the power of community. We believe that a connected informed & empowered community of pharmacy professionals (and their champions) can solve the injustice of inequitable access to quality medicines. Join us

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Forum Posts (38)

  • Humanitarian pharmacist volunteer opportunity - Lao

    Rare opportunity for a qualified and registered pharmacist to gain experience in a low-resource development setting: https://fwab.org/hospitalvolunteers/ Feel free to get in touch for support and advice for your application and deployment. #GlobalPharmacy

  • Diphtheria Response - Bangladesh

    Hi Global Pharm-ers Advice please! I'm currently supporting a emergency response to the diphtheria outbreak in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a really challenging country for pharmaceutical importation, plus there are Quality Assurance concerns for national market procurement. I've found that there are several production lines with European regulatory approval (i.e. manufacturers) which is great, but we'll need to procure via a distributor. I was hoping for advice/recommendations about which wholesalers or distributors to approach (or stay away from)! Thanks! Kate

  • Drug Charts!

    I've just spent a wonderful weekend in the Lake District in the UK, thinking about prescriptions and drug administration records. We were considering the challenge of designing documentation that's fit for an EMT and for an Emergency Response context. So we wanted it to be: - simple to use, read and navigate - rapid to complete with all the essential information - error "resistant", to help avoid errors in communication - brief and cohesive: avoiding multiple types of documents. I started with a template and guidance note created by the Royal Medical Colleges, Royal College of Nursing and Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Working with senior clinicians from secondary care, primary care and academia, we discussed how to adapt the chart to better meet our needs and our patient population. Next job is to get some protoypes developed and to gather some feedback from experts and test runs. I'll keep you posted and let you know how it goes! In the meantime would love to hear from others about their experiences of developing / implementing / using drug charts and prescriptions in busy healthcare settings. Thanks! Kate

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